Patients' Awareness Towards Doctor Compliance to Hand Hygiene Practice in Two Healthcare Facilities in Al-Baha
- Muhammad Halwani Doaa Salem Hossam Al-Hawarri .et .al
- Reseived: Received 29 March, 2021 Received in Revised Form: 21 May, 2021 Accepted: 30 May, 2021
Background: It is important for patients to be aware of their doctor's hand hygiene practices, and that it is their right to inform them if they do not comply to such safety health measures. In Saudi Arabia, specifically Al-Baha city, there is a scarcity of studies investigating patients’ awareness about this specific topic in spite of its importance. Aim: To investigate patients’ knowledge about the importance of hand hygiene and their attitudes toward the compliance of doctors to these measures. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in a hospital and in a primary healthcare center in different outpatient clinics that include: pediatric, medical, surgical, and Obs-Gyne, during the period of December 2017 to January 2018. The study was carried out using an in-house questionnaire. All the information was gathered electronically in a data sheet (Excel Microsoft, USA) and were then analyzed by the IBM-SPSS statistical software (version 21). The significance of the differences between the groups tested was determined with a chi-square test set at a 0.05 significance level. Results: In total, 306 patients were recruited and the overall awareness of patients to hand hygiene importance was (72.5%). The study population were categorized first by age (<20, 20 - 40, >40 years old) and then by gender (39% male) (61% female). The proportion of the age groups were 17%, 43%, 39% respectively. Patients between the age group of 20-40 years were more aware of hand hygiene importance (p-value < 0.001). The same age group were also more interested in the compliance of doctors to hand hygiene measures (p-value < 0.006). Only the youngest age group (<20 years old) argued that they would complain against doctors if they did not comply (p-value < 0.001). However, they did not show significant awareness of hand hygiene importance. When data was categorized by gender, female patients were more aware of the importance of hand hygiene than males (p-value < 0.003). Both genders agreed not to complain against their doctors if they did not perform hand hygiene. Conclusion: Despite the overall patient awareness of the importance of hand hygiene, the groups who are <20, >40 years old, need more awareness about hand hygiene importance. All patients should be aware of patient rights and duties.
Evaluating Quality and Spatial performance of Urban Open Spaces by Spaceshaper: The Case of Al-Baha
- Abdulaziz Alzahrani
- Reseived: 5 April, 2021 Received in Revised Form: 4 May, 2021 Accepted: 18 May, 2021
This paper examines the quality and spatial performance of open urban open spaces using Spaceshaper as assessment method. The research aims to establish and analyze a digital database for the study area, and produces digital maps using geographic information systems with satellite visuals and maps that help planners and decision makers. ‘Spaceshaper’, is a practical toolkit created by CABE Space to measure the quality of an open space before investing time and money in improving it. The mechanism of Spaceshaper emerges by capturing the perceptions of both the professionals who are involved in running spaces and the individuals who use them. The results are discussed during a facilitated workshop that aims to argue matters of design quality. The paper highlights eight attributes, and findings from an evaluation of comprehensive urban open spaces (n = 119) reveal the need to change the land use in the area and create flexibility that is capable of attracting investment activities in the study area. The result shows that some spaces are lack in terms of design and appearance such as absence of sidewalks or spaces quality or poor condition of the materials used in these spaces. Urban open spaces in the study area are characterized by a lack of interest in their cleanliness, poor design and neglected which contribute to the visual distortion of space. Investment solutions must be obtained to establish a joint-stock company, in which the heirs who have vacant lands participate in this joint-stock company and develop the region through it. It appears that many vacant lands are inherited by many people who have no legal power over them. The area nodes lack much interest in terms of social life presence for the movement of social interactions. It is essential to periodically consider the opinions of residents and users to obtain knowledge about their needs and monitor their behavior to achieve urban spaces that are capable of embracing social interactions and diversifying users and social structure.
Therapeutic Effect of Cardamom Plant (Elettaria cardamomum) on Hypercholesterolemic Rats
- Lobna Saad Mohammed Abd Elmeged
- Reseived: 2 February, 2021 Received in Revised Form: 2 May, 2021 Accepted: 6 May, 2021
Medicinal herbs are plant parts that have many therapeutic benefits for many chronic diseases, and the cardamom plant is one of the most curative plants, which contains essential lipids such as sterol and phenolic acids. These lipids have antioxidative potential that might increase antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, so current study aims to know the effect of feeding different level of cardamom plant (Elettaria cardamomum) in on hypercholesterolemic rats. The experiment was performed in animal house. All rats were fed for one week on basal diet before starting the experiment, then divided into two main groups, the first group (n= 6 rats) was fed on the basal diet only as a control negative (C–ve) normal rats for 28 days. The rats of second main group (n= 18 rats) hypercholesterolemic rats. The second main group is divided into three sub-groups, including 2 groups fed with different concentrations of (10%, and 15 %) cardamom and one group control positive infected with the disease do not feed on the experimental diet. The result showed that in groups of 10% and 15% cardamom was significant (P<0.05) when compared with control negative, also results showed that U.acid in rats fed on 15 % cardamom was significant (P<0.05) when compared with control positive. The study recommends that adding cardamom in the diets of hypercholesterolemic patients at certain concentrations and under medical supervision. Also, different levels of cardamom powder, may be suggested for lowering LDL and atherogenic index levels.
- Reseived: 8 dec 2021 Received in Revised Form: 10 dec 2021 Accepted: 12 dec 2021
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