High Purine Diet and Unfavorable Body Composition Contributed to Hyperuricemia in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia
- Osama A. Shaikhomar Eslam A. Header
- Reseived: 29 January, 2020 Received in Revised Form: 15 March, 2020 Accepted: 25 March, 2020
Background: Hyperuricemia and Gout have strong correlations to high protein diet consumption. Many causes and factors have been found previously. Neither dietary intake nor body composition are investigated in any work in Makkah (Saudi Arabia) region in relation to hyperuricemia. Aim: To investigate the association between purine-rich foods and body composition with the prevalence of hyperuricemia in Makkah city. Methods: A pilot sample of one hundred subjects (male = 77) and (female = 23), aged between 20-65 years, were chosen from inpatient and outpatient of orthopedic clinics and labs in hospitals in Makkah. A special designed and a tested questionnaire was used when patients interviewed. A food frequency questionnaire for purine-rich foods used to estimate consumption. The weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) was estimated. Body composition was evaluated by Bodystat® Omron device. Blood uric acid, urea and creatinine were reported in the patient's file. Results: About 23.4% of the male were hyperuricemic. The mean of uric acid was significantly higher for hyperuricemia subjects compared to normouricemia (NU) (0.78±0.15 vs 0.33±0.06 µmol/l; p<0.001). There was a highly significant positive correlation (p<0.01) between hyperuricemia and each of age, waist, and visceral fat. This was also true for consumption of camel meat, fish, salmon, liver, lentil, and beans. Conclusion: All hyperuricemic subjects were found to be male and a possible causative factor is being older patient with higher purine diets consumption, bigger body composition with less physical activity. Increased visceral fat associated strongly and positively with hyperuricemia. Therefore, nutrition education programs are recommended to improve nutrition and health status to reduce hyperuricemia.
An Augmented Reality Platform Enhances Collaboration between Students and Teachers
- Nouf M. Al-Zahrani
- Reseived: 6 October, 2019 Received in Revised Form: 23 February, 2020 Accepted: 25 February, 2020
This research aimed to develop an e-learning application based on augmented reality (AR) technologies to help students and teachers collaborate. Consistent with Saudi Arabia’s Digital Transformation Vision of 2030, this framework called AugmentedBook supports the promotion of a strong educational community. AR content can be added to a real visual scenario to achieve inclusive, interactive and collaborative educational support. AugmentedBook allows users in the educational community to create a real environment for the exchange and enrichment of learning using textbooks. This is achieved through the capacity to add and superimpose multimedia annotations on the same educational resource. These annotations can be conveyed through text, images and video and audio media. Students can exchange annotations with other users, view others’ annotations and judge their relevance. The proposed e-learning application constitutes a complete framework for collaboration, with the capacity for storage, publication of annotations and the expression of relevant judgments. The AugmentedBook framework solves the problem of standardizing the application of new technologies, such as AR in e-learning.
Overview of Mosquito-Borne Viral Infections in Makkah, Saudi Arabia
- Rowaida A. Bakrii
- Reseived: 24 November, 2019 Received in Revised Form: 22 January, 2020 Accepted: 29 January, 2020
We performed a cross sectional analysis of all reported mosquito-borne viral infections in Saudi Arabia from year 2013 to 2018. Based on national data obtained from annual statistical books of Saudi Ministry of Health regarding reported MBVI, dengue fever was the only MBVI recorded throughout these years. The overall recorded dengue cases per year ranged from 2081: 6512 cases. There is a fluctuation in the incidence of recorded cases over the studied period, 6512 cases were recorded in year 2013, dropped to 2081 year 2014 to rise again to 5116 cases by year 2018. As expected, most of the cases recorded in western region of Saudi Arabia especially in Jeddah and the holy city of Makkah. The incidence is more among Non-Saudi male with a significant difference compared to Saudi citizens p < 0.00001. Dengue fever was the only MBVI recorded throughout the studied years and none of the other MBVI was recorded in any region all over the kingdom. However, extra efforts must be implemented by health authorities to minimize the occurrence of dengue. Furthermore, health professionals should be oriented by other known mosquito-borne viral infections that they may face through workers and visitors. Finally, clinical laboratories should be provided with the required diagnostic kits for most common mosquito-borne viral infections.
Analysis, Design and Simulation of Analog Compensators for Switched Mode Power Supply Regulators
- Mohamed A. Abdel-Rahman
- Reseived: 28 November, 2019 Received in Revised Form: 12 December, 2019 Accepted: 12 December, 2019
This paper sheds the light on the design of the analog compensator circuit aiming to achieve high degree of stability for the switched mode power supply regulators. We have performed our codes using Matlab to determine the compensator elements which satisfy certain desired specifications such as gain/phase margin at a specific crossover frequency (f_cross) and steady state error value (e_ss). We benefit from applying the type-III compensator with two coincident zeros and two coincident poles instead of that one with three poles and two zeros to cope with cumbersome analysis and to adapt the peak of compensator phase with the desired phase margin value over the bandwidth of the closed loop system. This Op-Amp requires a feedback circuit to make it stable and can be wired in a lot of different ways for control loop design. Such feedback loop can be represented using different techniques like averaging method, optical coupling and pulse width modulator. The lower resistor (Rbottom) does not affect the gain-phase plot in Op-Amp applications while the upper resistor (R1) changes the gain-phase results. In adjustable regulators with Op-Amp, it is best to change the lower feedback resistor keeping the upper resistor unchanged if we want to change the output voltage. And also, the error amplifier can be a voltage-to-current amplification device, that is, the gm Op-Amp (Operational Transconductance Amplifier, OTA). This is an open-loop amplifier stage without local feedback. In this work, we focus on type-III one. The dynamic response of such compensator which incorporated with the closed loop buck regulator is investigated. Such response is studied under the input voltage and load variations to ensure the high degree of stability by keeping its output voltage value at the pre-designed one. This is emphasized by noting that a small overshoot around the step up/down instant and rapidly vanished. Moreover, the control mode applied is the voltage mode control to describe the type of feedback process which makes the analysis and design to become more easier. In addition, we transpose the analog s-domain transfer function of the compensator into its equivalent z-domain form to make use of software programming and no need to replace the hardware in case of a new design. The erosion of the phase margin for the digital compensator specially with zero order hold (ZOH) is included.
A Systematic Review on Mobile Learning Adoption in Saudi Arabian Higher Education
- Ali S. Alowayr
- Reseived: 21 December, 2019 Received in Revised Form: 10 February, 2020 Accepted: 18 February, 2020
The education sector has changed significantly over the years. Furthermore, attempts are being made to identify ways through which technology can be used to improve the services that students get in institutions of learning. Nowadays, technology is considered a source of meaning-making in different areas, including the education sector. One of the factors that have contributed to the adoption of technology in the education sector is the changing educational environment. Furthermore, technology has provided avenues through which education can be commercialized. It also fosters the neoliberal idea of power and enables proprietors in the education sector to make profits. The aim of this study was to examine the state of mobile learning in the higher education sector in Saudi Arabia. The study entailed conducting a systematic search of electronic databases to locate articles that have explored the topic of mobile learning (m-learning) within the Saudi higher education context. The results showed that m-learning is an important component of higher education in the country. Students and educators have adopted different tools, including personal digital assistant devices and smart phones, and used them for educational purposes. The government, on the other hand, works with learning institutions and other partners to create an appropriate infrastructure that supports mobile learning in the country.
Vancomycin-Induced Anaphylaxis in a Child: a Case Report
- Abdulhadi Al Mazroea
- Reseived: 17 April 2019 Received in Revised Form: 12 December 2019 Accepted: 19 December 2019
Background: Anaphylactic reaction can happen to any drug whatever its potency. Anaphylaxis require rapid detection and management and suspicion of offending drug. We present a case of vancomycin-induced anaphylaxis. Case report: A 10-year-old female presented with stills disease and developed renal impairment with hypertension. Blood cultures later revealed candidiasis and vancomycin sensitive cocci. Infusion of vancomycin produce anaphylactic reaction. Management of anaphylaxis was successful and terminate reaction sequelae. Conclusion: Vancomycin is a well-known drug for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. However, vancomycin may trigger anaphylactic and anaphylactoid (red man syndrome) reaction.